AbstractComplex three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models are emerging as a key technology to support research
areas in personalised medicine, such as drug development and regenerative medicine. Tools for manipulation and positioning of microtissues play a crucial role in the microtissue life cycle from
production to end-point analysis. The ability to precisely locate microtissues can improve the efficiency
and reliability of processes and investigations by reducing experimental time and by providing more
controlled parameters. To achieve this goal, standardisation of the techniques is of primary importance.
Compared to microtissue production, the field of microtissue manipulation and positioning is still in its
infancy but is gaining increasing attention in the last few years. Techniques to position microtissues have
been classified into four main categories: hydrodynamic techniques, bioprinting, substrate modification,
and non-contact active forces. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the different tools for
the manipulation and positioning of microtissues that have been reported to date. The working mechanism of each technique is described, and its merits and limitations are discussed. We conclude by evaluating the potential of the different approaches to support progress in personalised medicine.
Publication ReferenceLab Chip, 2022, Advance Article