Smartphones may provide a highly available access to simplified hypertension screening in environments with limited health care resources. Most studies involving smartphone blood pressure (BP) apps have focused on validation in static conditions without taking into account intraindividual BP variations. We report here the first experimental evidence of smartphonederived BP estimation compared to an arterial catheter in a highly dynamic context such as induction of general anesthesia. We tested a smartphone app (OptiBP) on 121 patients requiring general anesthesia and invasive BP monitoring. For each patient, ten 1-min segments aligned in time with ten smartphone recordings were extracted from the continuous invasive BP. A total of 1152 recordings from 119 patients were analyzed. After exclusion of 2 subjects and rejection of 565 recordings due to BP estimation not generated by the app, we retained 565 recordings from 109 patients (acceptance rate 51.1%). Concordance rate (CR) and angular CR demonstrated values of more than 90% for systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MBP) BP. Error grid analysis showed that 98% of measurement pairs were in no- or low-risk zones for SBP and MBP, of which more than 89% in the no-risk zone. Evaluation of accuracy and precision [bias ± standard deviation (95% limits of agreement)] between the app and the invasive BP was 0.0 ± 7.5 mmHg [− 14.9, 14.8], 0.1 ± 2.9 mmHg [− 5.5, 5.7], and 0.1 ± 4.2 mmHg [− 8.3, 8.4] for SBP, DBP and MBP respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a smartphone app was compared to an invasive BP reference. Its trending ability was investigated in highly dynamic conditions, demonstrating high concordance and accuracy. Our study could lead the way for mobile devices to leverage the measurement of BP and management of hypertension.
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, vol. , pp.