Renewable energy sources (RES) are changing the operating conditions of power systems. In this context, battery energy storage systems (BESSs) could be a viable technical solution to maximize the local consumption of RES generation or to provide ancillary services to the grid. However, the lack of technical information about the real field performance is affecting the diffusion of BESS on the market. Here we present a technological comparison between different lithium-based storage technologies in terms of energy density, power density and efficiency based on the IEC 62660-1 standard for automotive. However, the standard measurements are not sufficient to describe the cell performance in the case of stationary applications. We therefore introduce two additional test protocols to evaluate the energy density as a function of the power density, and the efficiency as a function of the charge/discharge current rates. We discuss how these procedures improve the evaluation of performance and how they improve the system design and cost estimation for BESS in stationary applications.
in 2017 6th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (Issue), ed New York: Ieee, 2017, pp. 410-415.