Silicon heterojunction solar cells without metallization can be interconnected using SmartWire Connection Technology (SWCT). The module performances can be comparable to standard SWCT module and the electrical contact of wire to transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is stable during more than 200 thermo-cycles between -40 degrees C to and85 degrees C. Costs comparison shows that direct contact to TCO is still more expensive than standard SWCT using indium-tin coating. By switching to indium-free wire, the cost parity can be reached.
in 2018 Ieee 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (Issue), ed New York: Ieee, 2018, pp. 1998-2001.