Low temperature wafer bonding of silicon to various materials is a key technology for all applications requiring a low temperature budget, such as monolithic CMOS integrated pixel detectors . Here, we combine wet chemical etching of the native oxide from wafer surfaces with removal of the hydrogen passivation layer by a low-energy plasma prior to bonding in high vacuum (10 -8 mbar). The method is applicable to the bonding of a multitude of crystalline semiconductors, and for Si results in conductive interfaces similar to the ones of UHV-bonded defect-free surfaces .
Low temperature covalent wafer bonding for X-ray imaging detectors (Issue). New York: Ieee, 2019.